In this model, the participants in inter-municipal cooperation have created and own the administrative unit or special district. They transfer to the newly constituted entity the right to provide the public service. In addition to the service, the unit is entitled to collect the fees for this service if these fees have been collected in advance by the participating municipalities. Since these units need clearly defined rights and obligations, efforts to train them are much greater and are not possible in all countries.  Disposal services and water supply can be organised in this way in some countries. A 2001 framework decree reformed inter-municipal cooperation by the Flemish government. A large number of forms of inter-municipal cooperation have been implemented by law. In addition, some monitoring elements have been put in place to ensure the control of municipal councils. The framework insists on the “purity” of BMI, so municipalities must be involved in the first place.  Unlike other European countries, local authorities in the UK are severely limited. As a result, inter-municipal cooperation is not as widespread in Britain.
 While municipalities have the authority to provide public services, they often do not have the ability to collect additional charges.  Inter-municipal cooperation is a contemporary phenomenon. A historical example of inter-municipal cooperation is the Hansa, created by communities in northern Europe, which existed from the thirteenth to the seventeenth century. After the Industrial Revolution, as cities grew rapidly and the demands on public services increased, inter-municipal cooperation became increasingly popular. While cooperation was not binding at first, BMI was increasingly codified legally in the early twentieth century. Coordinated behaviour is the lowest level of inter-municipal cooperation. Entry and exit are voluntary and non-binding.  Typical examples of coordinated behaviour are combined tourism development strategies. Inter-municipal cooperation has a long history in Germany. In the administrative system of Germany (Confederation, Länder, municipalities), municipalities must finance their own services.
Therefore, municipalities naturally have an interest in providing efficient public services.  BMI is used to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of public service delivery.  Joint financing and operation of these services can reduce costs and achieve increasing economies of scale and scale in small and rural areas. . . .