13. Dür A, Baccini L, Elsig M. The development of international trade agreements: introduction of a new data set. Rev Int Organ. (2014) 9:353-75 Doi: 10.1007/s11558-013-9179-8 7. Dai M, Yotov YV, Zylkin T. On the trade diversion effects of free trade agreements. Econ Lett. (2014) 122:321-5 doi: 10.1016/j.econlet.2013.12.024 Bilateral agreements can often trigger competing bilateral agreements between other countries. This can take away the benefits of the free trade agreement between the two home nations.
Keywords: Trade agreement, international trade, complex networks, network of networks, Random Walk 5. Cipollina M, Salvatici L. Mutual trade agreements in gravitational models: a meta-analysis. Rev Int Econ. (2010) 18:63-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9396.2009.00877.x Bilateral agreements increase trade between the two countries. They open markets to thriving sectors. If businesses benefit, they create jobs. The announcement by the current US administration of the review of the country`s trade policy and the negotiation of “new and better agreements” through SAAs  has revived the debate on the impact of such agreements and on the underlying interests and strategies. In recent years, SAAs have become an increasingly important political instrument and often used to establish and intensify close trade relations. In these agreements, countries grant each other trade privileges in the form of concessions on trade barriers, including the reduction of tariffs and quotas, as well as the facilitation of market access and competition rules.
The theory suggests that the removal of trade barriers increases trade between the economies concerned, which stimulates economic growth in the contracting countries . Empirical studies conducted so far – in particular using so-called gravitational models – largely confirm a positive effect of BTAs on trade [3-6]. However, they also indicate that this could be at the expense of offshoring production from more efficient suppliers to other countries [3, 6, 7]. Thus, BTAs can improve some trade relations while weakening others that are not directly covered by the agreement. As a result, BTAs can change the structure of the international trade network, which consists of input-output interconnections between national economic sectors. There is evidence that the effectiveness of the BTF in improving trade between the Contracting Parties depends on the specific characteristics of the countries concerned.