The passage of NAFTA has removed or removed barriers to trade and investment between the United States, Canada and Mexico. The impact of the agreement on issues such as employment, the environment and economic growth has been the subject of political controversy. Most economic analyses have shown that NAFTA has been beneficial to North American economies and the average citizen, but has been detrimental to a small minority of workers in sectors subject to trade competition.   Economists have estimated that the withdrawal from NAFTA or the renegotiation of NAFTA, in a way that would have created restored trade barriers, would have affected the U.S. economy and cost jobs.    However, Mexico would have been much more affected, both in the short term and in the long term, by the loss of jobs and the reduction of economic growth.  A Chapter 19 panel should consider whether the Agency`s decision was supported by “substantial evidence.” This standard was a considerable tribute to the national agency. Some of the most contentious trade disputes in recent years, such as the U.S.-Canada dispute over conifers, were negotiated ahead of chapter 19 panels. On September 30, 2018, the deadline for negotiations between Canada and the United States, an interim agreement was reached between the two countries, thus retaining the trilateral pact when the Trump administration submits the agreement to Congress.  The new name of the agreement was the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) and came into force on July 1, 2020.
  President Donald Trump courted by promising to end NAFTA and other trade agreements he considered unfair to the United States. On August 27, 2018, he announced a new trade agreement with Mexico, which is expected to replace it. The U.S.-Mexico trade agreement, as has been said, would maintain duty-free access for agricultural products on both sides of the border and eliminate non-tariff barriers, while encouraging more agricultural trade between Mexico and the United States and effectively replacing NAFTA. Methanex Corporation, a Canadian group, has filed a $970 million complaint against the United States. Methanex said a California ban on methyltert-butyl ether (MTBE), a substance that had found its way into many wells in the state, was hurting the company`s sale of methanol. The complaint was dismissed and the company was ordered to pay $3 million to the United States.